The human trafficking or smuggling of persons is a world crime committed against humanity. Women, children, and men are used as merchandise for prostitution, slavery, organs transplants, and Satanist rituals. Human trafficking has been around civilizations for several centuries, since the creation of controlled civilizations. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that every year, 2.4 million of people are trafficked around the world. The global criminal organization profits are $32 billion per year and it’s included the European sexual trafficking of 70,000 per year of women and children. Human trafficking is a worldwide issue that is affecting millions of lives mentally and physiologically. Poverty and difficult situations are often used by the traffickers to convince their victims to leave their country and move to another one with a better chance of living. Today human trafficking has become an enormous problem for the global economy and has affected million of lives. The involvement of the United Nations and the coordination of developed countries is the only tool that can make a difference in the war against criminal organizations.
History of Human Trafficking
While human trafficking has been always present in every society, even since the Egyptians culture, from the beginning of the fifteen to the seventeen century, Europe started a slavery trading campaign between Africa and Portugal (Agatucci). Then in 1562, Grand Britain joined the campaign and begun to develop plantation colonies in the African territory (Agatucci). By the end of 1600s Spain, North America, Holland, France, Sweden, and Denmark also joined the slavery European campaign (Agatucci). In 1904 the United Nations signed in New York an agreement that was ending the “White Slavery”, an illegal activity that had forced and deceived white old and young women to become prostitutes (Kangaspunta). In 1927, after the First World War, the League of Nations was created to maintain peace in the world, and prevent more human trafficking (Kangaspunta). The league reviewed the agreement on human trafficking signed in 1904, and rename it “The Suppression of traffic in women and children” where women and children race and gender was not discriminated (Kangaspunta). Furthermore, the group started to analyze the U.S. West and the East coasts for trafficking activity, and they gathered information about the women involved in prostitution, in which kind of environment they were living, and what kind of the trafficker organizations were operating (Kangaspunta). In 1932, the Japanese government, during World War II, imposed a system of prostitution and sexual slavery to all Asian women (“Past”). While they were imprisoned in houses, also called “comfort stations”, surrounded by barbed wire, these women were living in terrible circumstances (“Past”). They were detained in booth spaces, and continuously physically violated and tortured (“Past”). Several women didn’t survive this treatment and died of illness and fatigue (“Past”). While the Japanese had created those houses to prevent women to get raped in the street, prevent sexual diseases to spread to others, satisfy the Japanese soldiers, they were keeping women prisoners to prevent them not to reveal armed forces secrets (“Past”). During the fifties in India, most of the young girls and women were captured, imprisoned in brothels, and then forced into prostitution rings (“Fourth”). The Indian government created an act called the “Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act”, a measure to protect women to be sexually trafficked (“Fourth”). But the act was so unsuccessful that it had to be revised for the sexual concerns (“Fourth”). Finally at the beginning of the nineties after the human trafficking has reached a global concern, the United Nations (UN) during the World Conference, spoke about the women trafficked for sexual works (“Fourth”). During the conference, this inhumane activity was identified as an “act of violence against women” (“Fourth”). Subsequent to the conference, the U.N. committee developed several actions necessary to initiate global changes on human trafficking prevention, and stressed for an international collaboration amongst the law enforcement to minimize human slavery and traffic of women and children (“Fourth”). They then created social, psychological, medical, and educational programs to help the victims to overcome the trauma caused by their captors (“Fourth”).
Human trafficking or trafficking of persons, is the illegal action of transporting people involuntarily from a country to another one for sexual favors, prostitution, forced work, organ market, and slavery (UNODC). People that don’t possess personal identification or a travel document are generally part of a human trafficking activity (UNODC). Sexual abuse has been lately the most common method of human trafficking identified by international law enforcement agencies (UNODC). In the last decade, sexual exploitation has been approximately eighty percent of cases in the world, while the remains percentage was believed to be other forms of coerced employment (UNODC). While some of this information might not been hundred percent corrected, people that are forced into sexual works are easily identifiable than the people that are forced to work in agricultural factories (UNODC). The majority of the main stream also believes that most of the people affected by the human trafficking are just women, and this mistake has deformed the real statistics (UNODC). With the increase of the worldwide law enforcement activities, the people that are coerced to work or used for additional physical work are increasable detected (UNODC). While most of young female are forced into prostitution, adult and young male, low percentage of cases, may be also forced to perform illegal works, asking for money, are used as sexual objects, Satanist rituals, giving organs, or join militant groups (UNODC).
In Europe, from the East to West of the region, children are trafficked to be used as thieves (UNODC). Recent data has shown that children in the poorest part of the world, including sub-regions of Africa and Cambodia, are one within five victims involved in human trafficking (UNODC). There are many reasons why children are used all over the world: child pornography, prostitution, pleading for money, Satanist sacrifices, terrorism, and forced labors where their small hands are necessary to embroider luxury merchandise (UNODC). There are many different cases of people that are subject to human trafficking around the world that is not possible to present each of them as unique profiles (UNODC). A part children, women, majority young females, are thirties three percent in the world to be trafficked into sex and prostitution under the pretext of a bogus job offers in another country (UNODC). When they arrived in the new nation, they are usually assaulted, drugged, raped, lock up, menaced to have their family killed, and their passport removed (UNODC). Young female from Africa are brought to Europe with the promise of become fashion models or baby sitters, and then forced into prostitution rings, or exotic dancers (UNODC). Females trafficked from Asia are also trafficked with the promise of a better job offer, then imprisoned, and used as slaves (UNODC). People trafficked from South America to the United States, are forced into terrible work conditions under the threat of having their families killed (UNODC).
Trafficking for Organs Trade
Trafficking of human organs is a felony that can happen in three different ways: people are forced to donate an organ, victims agreed to donate an organ at a specific price, victims are patients in the hospital for other reasons and theirs organs removed without their consent (UNODC). Most of the people that become involved in the organ trade are homeless persons, illegal immigrant, refugees, analphabetic individuals (UNODC). Data have shown that organ trafficking can happen to people of all ages (UNODC). Most of the organs that are removed are the kidneys, liver, and any other kind of organ that is easy to take out and sold (UNODC). The people that are leading this illegal business are several, from the identifier of the potential victim, the person transporting the organ, the workers at the hospital or private location, the people that are buying the organ, and the locations where the organs are saved (UNODC). While the size of those organized crime organizations is an enormous apparatus, is virtually impossible to law enforcement to dismantle it (UNODC).
Trafficking for Forced Labor
While many people are trafficked to do forced labor across the world, the transaction of this illegal activity is done by individuals that are treating this as a normal business process (UNODC). In this activity there are agents, transporters, and individuals that are requesting the labor force (UNODC). Through the development of new ways of transportation and communication, the demand of cheap work is more requested in industrial countries, but because some them have increased their immigration regulations and getting a visa has become a complication for the immigrants, the legal labor migration have weakened (UNODC). Exploitative employment, with use of a bond or debt also defined by the United Nations “bonded labor” or “debt bondage”, is one of the tactics that clandestine employment agencies or mediators are using to attract prospective emigrants (UNODC). In South Asia, many immigrants when they take on an initial debt as a part of their employment process, they don’t realize that they will become bonded to the organization that has recruited them from generation to generation (UNODC). Some of the tactics that captors are using to keep under control the immigrants is the threatening to receive terrible physical harm, including sexual or emotional abuse or they are threatened to be deported if they would try to leave their work location (UNODC). Most of the victims lured into the forced labors are people with low-skills and are originating from countries with economic problems (UNODC).
While hundred thousands of children are missing every year in the United States, most of them are kidnapped from houses, streets, and playground (Gunderson, 1991). Some sexual predators have been responsible of these abductions (Gunderson, 1991). However, the majority of the children have never been found, and in the last decades they have been several important high rank people from law enforcement federal agencies, that have claimed that most of the missing children in the U.S. are kidnapped systematically to be sexually abused and killed in satanic rituals (Gunderson, 1991).
Global Organized Crime
In the last five decades, Global Organized Crime (GOC) groups have been gaining high profits by exploiting human beings (UNODC). The International Labor Organization (ILO) has confirmed that in the last decade, 2.4 million persons were trafficked somewhere, and the profits for the GOC were about $32 billion per year (UNODC). The European human trafficking business is about $3 billion per year where their victims are most people that are poor, have bad connection, have drug related problems, and are not positive about their selves (UNODC). The GOC individuals are looking at the human beings as merchandise that can be used for anything and sold for revenue (UNODC). While in Europe most of those individuals are male, some other criminal groups are using female to lure young women to get their confidence (UNODC). To be able to track the GOC criminal activity around the world, the United States government has created the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report, a U.S. Government’s primary diplomatic apparatus that connect foreign governments to record data on human trafficking in their countries (The White House). The global data has shown that most of the trafficked victims are forced to work or forced to sexual activities, and are often bodily and psychologically maltreated (The White House). Although these activities have been believed to happen only across international borders, the victims are also trafficked inside their own country, and sold to other local crime organizations (The White House).
How to fight Human Trafficking
The war against human trafficking has been undertaken nationally and internationally through several methods (UNODC). At the beginning of the 21th, the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC) and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (PPSPTIPEWC) was added to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and implemented by the U.N. General Assembly and has become only active at the end of 2003 (UNODC). While the “Protocol” is the only global legal tool that can help to define human trafficking as a crime against humanity, and help to prevent and combating it, is also designed to assist the people that have been victimized, and support the partnership with other countries (UNODC). To be able to destroy Global Organized Crime (GOC) organizations, it is necessary a collaboration at every level, local, state, federal, private business, and involving the public to be more aware (UNODC). There are several aspects that are crucial in the combat of these criminal organizations: management, education and awareness, intelligence and technology, and support (UNODC).
Management: every nation in the world has to put together coordinated actions that will help to identify, investigate and bringing to justice the individuals behind these heinous crimes (UNODC).
Education and awareness: citizens and the general public need to be involved in educational campaign about organized crimes, and raise awareness at the political and educational level and involve students and families (UNODC).
Intelligence and technology: the standard law enforcement procedures and the legal criminal justice system are not strong enough to prosecute criminal organizations (UNODC). Special law enforcement units, with intelligence training and cover operations capabilities, and state of the art technology equipments are necessary to effectively destroy the criminal networks (UNODC). The use of Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) strategies can destroy organizations from the inside (UNODC).
Support: it is vital to assist other nations that need to build their counter-criminal competences (UNODC). With the United Nations Convention against Transnational organized Crime, a critical instrument in the war against transnational criminal organizations, which has been signed by 170 nations, offers a worldwide official structure to assist recognize, dissuade and take apart organized criminal groups (UNODC).
Human trafficking activities or stories of people that had been involuntarily transported to other countries or sold as merchandise have been always part of human history. From the slaves in Egypt to the slaving trade in Africa and the Americas, until the World War I when the League of Nations was created to maintain peace in the world, and prevent more human trafficking to happen. While, several agreements have been signed among developed nations at the beginning of the 20th century, to try to suppress traffic of women and children in Europe and in the United States from the West to the East coast, other countries in the Far East have try to create their prevention measures, but failed miserably to protect women and children from abuses. However, big changes have been seen only at the end of the 20th when the human trafficking has reached a skyrocketing global concern and millions of people have been declared missing. While the people that are trafficked are mainly women and children, who are either kidnapped or lured into fake promises of a new life in another country or a well paid job, most men and young boys are trafficked into forced labor rings. From the West to the Far East, young boys are mostly used in illegal luxury factories to manufacture merchandise that requires small hands to build. Others with less luck, are forced into pedo-pornographic compound and systematically sexually assaulted, sacrificed in satanic rituals, or used as child soldiers in the Africa regions. Thousands of children are systematically kidnapped every day across the world, from their houses, cities streets, and playground, sexually abused, raped, and sold to other organized crime organizations. Young females are physically abused, raped, drugged, and forced into prostitution rings controlled by organized crime groups that are working locally but also have international ties. The women and children traffic has become a global issue that the United Nations and all the developed countries are responsible to take accountability. While preventing human trafficking to happen, and bring to justice the traffickers are number one priorities to every governments, there are other important factors that need to be taken in consideration to be able to dismantle all organized crime organizations around the globe. International law enforcement coordination and collaboration with the implementation of special intelligence strategies like Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT), and other technological capabilities are necessary to destroy the organization from inside and arrest traffickers before they reach their destinations. Protecting the victims from their captors after been freed, and help them to build a new life and reinstate into the society is another important factor to be taken in consideration. Although it is very difficult to save every life, the government alone cannot resolve this diabolical activity that has destabilized the world and its economy. To be able to dismantle those crime organizations and prevent people to fall into fake promises, will be necessary the collaboration of every institution federal, state, local, and increase the public awareness.
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